Kurtz Fish Hatchery – Elversan, Pennsylvania

Department of Fisheries Kurtz & # 39; is the leader among the hatching of fish, and the owner Richard A. Kurtz is well known for his general knowledge in the field. Located in Chester County, in the south-eastern Pennsylvania, Kurtz Fish Hatchery specializes in the cultivation of fish for the sports market. This incubator is licensed for the manufacture of these sporting fish: bass (hybrid striped largemut), catfish duct cancer, the American eel, a common goldfish, the fat red and pink red Wednesday, mussels, gold shyner, pumpkin sunny fish, tadpoles and rainbow trout. This is one of the fourteen approved dealers who received the permission of the fishing boat Pennsylvania Commission on the import, transport and sale of carp Tryploid. Karasev herbaceous herbs used for low-cost, herbicides, anti-aquatic weeds in ponds and lakes, are imported from Asia and are genetically modified to prevent divorces in spawning fish.

Pennsylvania fish farmers grow more than twenty kinds of sport fish. Two-thirds of Pennsylvania cultivated fish in the amount of $ 15 million for sport fishing. Perhaps the most widespread and popular sport fish of warm water in the southeast Pennsylvania to & # 39 is a bass Largemouth. Hybrid striped bass works well in ponds, it is growing rapidly in reservoirs and is becoming popular as a sport fish.

One reason for the selection of fish with Kurtz & # 39; is a leader in the field with a & # 39 is excellence in the management of fish and pond. pond management is becoming increasingly important and requires specialized methods for the warmer waters of Pennsylvania. Small ponds are best for a limited number of hunting species of fish: Bass, Sunny fish and catfish. Azyartsovyya fish (pike, Maskelunzh and goiter) is not a very good situation in the small pond. Most warm shallow waters in the southeast Pennsylvania will not support trout because the water temperature is too warm, which leads to lack of oxygen.

Reservoirs must be carefully managed, taking into account the density of plants. Too much density in aquatic plant beds will be rubbing sun fish, as well as reducing the effectiveness of Largemouth bass, because control over the population in the Bluegill. Between the two populations there is a delicate balance that must be maintained. A large number of expanded material which remained in the reservoir may also deplete oxygen.

Farms, farmed, grown in conditions that give them a lot of space for movement and the development of their muscles as they grow. Several species are grown in a pond and an artificial food is added is limited in their diet. This means better survival and viability after harvesting. If not handled properly the result will stun solar and undersized fish basonav Largemouth. There is a need in the proper ratio to the Sun Bass fish, or overpopulation will hamper Solar Fish. Caught blocks should never go back to water bodies due to their ability to reproduce and crowd reservoirs.

Extensive and detailed knowledge in fish farming, as well as in the management of the pond – is that Kurtz Fat Hatchchery with & # 39 is a reliable and resourceful dealer in southeast Pennsylvania. For more information or in case of responses, please contact directly with the company.

Isolation of fish smokers
161 Isabelle Road
Elversan, PA, 19520
(610) 286-9250

Your form of speech affect the efficiency of sales

speech material impact on sales

Oriental accents, like the ones being talked about New Yorkers tend to speak very quickly. South attraction, as well as those spoken by people from the South, is much slower. And if you are talking with the midfielder, the speech circuit is very different. How do these different accents, speech patterns and speed of speech affect the sales efforts and telemarketyngu?

There is a lot of evidence that the speed of speech and accents affect sales. The consultant tried to analyze how accents and speaking rate influence both the sale for many years, and for consulting sales. This is not conclusive, but the leading marketing agencies agree that the focus and speed of speech really affect sales results.

Many companies like to hire people with the voices on the radio, hoping that voice quality will affect the efficiency of sales. Many companies make the speech test in hiring individuals who will constantly interact with other people. It seems that "theater" voice lowers resistance.

The importance of the speed of speech

Why the frequency of speech is important? Let's examine the reasons. Calls from sales and calls to telemarkety almost always with a & # 39 are an obstacle. People go to dinner or watch a movie on TV. Perspective, of course, do not expect a call TSR. While our brains when it focuses, can understand 600 words per minute, the brain may need five to ten seconds to adjust to the new speed of speech agent. Just need the brain a few seconds to gather the speed of speech, accent and a message to communicate.

At linebacker, who speaks at a speed of 170 words per minute (the WPM), there will be problems in communication (at the beginning) to New York, which speaks of 240 words for WPM. What does it mean? This means that they will miss or do not understand the agent's name, company, and, perhaps, the main purpose of the call.

Why do you think that many large service bureau telemarketav travel to Omaha Nebraska to create your call center? Cause:

  • In the middle of America's few accents
  • their speech is moderate in comparison with the southerners and New Yorkers

The ideal rate of speech – 180 verbal tests

Pennsylvania Bell Company measured the speed of speech, holding the test of 180 words to measure it. This test will help teach your agents speak with a maximum speed of speech. It works by setting the timing of your agents, while they read the test: too long than one minute; less than a minute too soon. Here are 180 words of Pennsylvania Bell Company:

Most experts agree that the ideal speech rate is one hundred eighty to two hundred words per minute. With this speed, people who listen to you, will be able to hear and understand what you are saying. In the United States there are different speech patterns, with & # 39 are the product of geographic areas. In the north-eastern part of the country people speak faster than others, while people from the southern states speak slower than ideal. However, people in the countries of the Midwest, as a rule, will say a hundred and eighty. To test yourself, look at the start and end time. To do this, use your other hand hours. If you read this statement in less than one minute, you're talking too fast and should make an effort to slow down. But if you read this statement more than a minute, you talk too slow and should try to talk faster when talking on the phone.

How to improve the work of agents

Take one of their scenarios and determine the first 180 words. Try to keep your agents tried to read them in one minute. If you mark the ten second intervals, this will help you to identify speech patterns and habits, both good and bad, to your agents. After identification, you can begin the process of correcting bad habits, and underscores the good. Another useful suggestion – a check over the phone or in front of other agents.

A Brief History of the US rules of murder


After our American independence a number of new States have taken legislative reforms to codify crimes murder. One of the earliest states became Pennsylvania. In 1794, this state passed a law degree murder, which divided the murder first degree murder and second-degree murder. The legislature of Pennsylvania has limited the punishment for the crime of murder, sentenced to death only for those crimes that occurred during the commission of arson, rape, robbery or burglary. The Charter further provides that all the killings in the state, except those that have been committed in the commission of a common criminal offenses set forth in their statutes, must be second-degree murder.

Later, the crime of abduction has been added to the list of specified crimes for killing purposes. Only first-degree murder was the reason for hanging. Pennsylvania status is not really formulated the rule of the murder he did not commit the criminal responsibility, and does not define the elements of murder. Instead, the status of the defined participation in specific crimes as an element of assessment, which strengthens the responsibility for the murder. Charter prescribed:

All the killings to be committed by a poison or a subscription or any other willful, deliberate and premeditated murder, either committed in the commission or attempted commission of arson, rape, robbery, or burglary, is considered first-degree murder; and all other types of homicide – a second-degree murder.

Under the influence of the statute implies that the murder during one of these crimes did not require deliberate, willful and premeditated murder. charter language does not imply that the simple cause of death at the time of any crime has always been a murder. This idea is much more in line with that proposed by Lord Hale in his work at the end of the seventeenth century, and is similar to Judge Stephen jury instructions in Serna: that the murder will only if the crime is known life-threatening and can cause death . The word "considered" in the charter follows from the fact that the judge or jury could weigh the facts of the case and decide whether the behavior of the defendant is accused of murder, for which the defendant can be hung.

Pennsylvania Charter has had a very big impact, forming the statutes reform of murders in two-thirds of the existing then states during the nineteenth century. Twelve states have enacted Pennsylvania assessment scheme with little or no modification, the states that have adopted Pennsylvania's status as developed by the project were: Virginia in 1796, Kentucky from 1798 to 1801, Maryland in 1810 Louisiana since its recognition in 1812-1855 gg., Tennessee in 1829, Michigan in 1838, Arkansas in 1838, New Hampshire in 1842, Connecticut in 1846, Delaware in 1852, MA in 1858, and West Virginia, entering with this status Union in 1863.

Nineteen states have adopted a slightly revised evaluation scheme. States that have adopted the status of Pennsylvania with a somewhat different assessment of the scheme were: Ohio in 1815 Maine in 1840, Alabama in 1841, Missouri in 1845. Iowa in 1851, Indiana in 1852 California in 1856. Texas in 1858 in New York City in 1860, Kansas (entry into the Union with the law in 1861), Oregon in 1864, Nevada (entry into the Union with the law in 1864), Nebraska in 1873, Montana (enter into an alliance with such a law in 1889), Washington (entry into an alliance with such a law in 1889) Idaho (entry into an alliance with such a law in 1890) Wyoming (entry into an alliance with such a law in 1890 g), North Carolina in 1893, and Utah (in entering the Union with a law of 1896).

Begin development in the Perche will COUNTRY

The first real murder statute regulations was passed in the state of Illinois in 1827 the Illinois state determined the murder of unlawful killings with obvious anger or acting with the knowledge that these actions will either probably result in death or great bodily harm and murder. The statute adds that "involuntary murder … in the commission of the illegal act, which, in the end, of course seeks to destroy human life, or done in the pursuit of malice …". and recognized the murder. "Again we see the influence of Lord Hailey, not Lord Cox Illinois Statute -. This Charter murder However, this is not a strict charter of responsibilities as it limits liability for unintentional killing during a crime that." seek to destroy a person's life ". this does not apply to all offenses. Hale thought that this murder will only if the crime is known life-threatening and can cause death.

In 1829, New Jersey adopted the charter included in the murder of "murder" in the commission of or attempt to commit, sodomy, rape, arson, robbery or burglary, or any wrongful act against the peace of the State, which is likely consequence could be bloodshed .. . "in the same year, New York passed the most stringent statutes, regulations murder. Their status is determined by the killing as murder" without any conception of death the person involved in the commission of crimes. "at the end of the nineteenth century, nineteen states have enacted so different from . Atuty crimes These states are: Illinois in 1827), New Jersey in 1829, Georgia in 1833 Mississippi in 1839 Alabama in 1841, Missouri in 1845 Wisconsin in 1849 ., California in 1850, Texas in 1857 Minnesota (entrance with the laws of the Union) in 1858) Nevada (entry into the Union with the law in 1864), Oregon in 1864. Nebraska in 1866, although the law cancels Florida in 1873 in Colorado in 1868 (part of the Union with the law in 1876), Idaho and Montana (both included in the Union with such laws in 1889) and Utah (entry into the Union with the law in 1896).

The twentieth century began with the fact that in most states, there are different ways of defining a crime, involving offenses: culpable for the killing, which provides for a crime, and crime; prediction of responsibility for the murder on the offense, which is sometimes called the listed offenses, or prediction of responsibility for the killing of any crime. During the twentieth century to the twenty-first century, we continue to see the US states determined by the same crime of murder. The growth of crime in the United States has more to do with the charter of the evaluation Pennsylvania murders in 1794 than with the views of Lord Coke in the XVII century, that the death caused by an illegal act, with the & # 39 is murder.

usually murder a crime in the United States was more expansive than in England, thanks to the combination of two concepts. Firstly, the concept of the crime itself and the way of determining the statute and two; this concept is questionable liability, which is used for the prosecution of all compatriots significant crimes committed by any of the conspirators. illegal agreement, which may have led to the killing of the rules in the United States.

Such a situation may arise if Bonnie and Clyde decided to rob a local liquor store, and they enlist brother Clyde Buck, to drive them to the store of alcoholic beverages, to stay on the street to look at the street and be their driver. Buck agrees. If during a robbery shop employee reaches for his gun under the counter that made Bonnie shoot him with a pistol, but it falls, and its bullets to kill innocent store patron, then Bonn, Clyde and Buck will contain fault and each one can be convicted of conspiracy to robbery , armed robbery and murder. Usually murder a crime has never been applied in the UK in this way.

Battle of Gettysburgu – a turning point in the war

In 1863, Independence Day last year, which was in the minds of most Americans, celebrating freedom. Near a small town called Gettysburg, Adams County, Pennsylvania, about 50 000 people were victims of the bloodiest battle of the Civil War – the battle, which was soon recognized as a turning point of the war.

Confederate General Robert E. Lee was able to defeat the army of General Joseph Hooker in kantslersville, Virginia, in May 1863. Lee and his Army of Northern Virginia were able to fight off an army twice the size. Consolidate the victory, Lee decided to continue their march to the north. Its purpose was Harysburg, Pennsylvania; if he can get to Harysburga, he hoped to continue Philadelphia.

During the month of June whether the army went north to the Pennsylvania. Milastsinasts of which Lee was known, was discovered in the course of this campaign; He instructed his troops well to deal with civilians on the road, not taking food and horses, and to pay for them. A number of cities such as New York, Pennsylvania, was forced to pay compensation, not to supply the Confederates.

However, the July 1, 1863 troops of the Northern Virginia Lee met the troops of General George Midesa near Gettysburga, Pennsylvania, and the battle began when Gettysburgu sur & # 39; ozna.

Within three days of violent fighting broke out on the slopes Gettysburga. Over 165 thousand people would have agreed, and before the fighting ended, the earth red with blood. The battle was fierce, and the loss is confirmed. But loss results would not have been in vain, at least for the Union; formidable force the Army of Northern Virginia would inflict a mortal blow from which they and the South never recovered.

Until now, the Army of Northern Virginia Lee found herself an enemy to be reckoned with; they have often hid troops that far exceeded their numbers. And on the first day of fighting it seemed that Lee would win again.

By the second day the advantage of Lee disappeared. Army descendant in Mead, which was held in its structure, exceeded 20,000 confederate troops. If July 3, the third day of fighting ended, more than a third of Lee's army will be destroyed.

It was very necessary to win the North. It is evident that in the north of Waterloo newspapers Gettysburg allegedly argued that the Union was more than a match for the Army of Northern Virginia, which has been universally recognized as the most of the Union or Confederate army.

Defeat for Lee was more than amazing; it has shaken the confidence of a man who admired the southerners and northerners to the core. Still dwell on the recent death of his beloved General Jonathan "Stone Wall" Jackson, which Lee called his "right hand," Lee seemed more than an unfortunate loss of Gettysburgu; he was struck. Now he knew how important it is for Jackson Confederation and how the cripple was the army of Northern Virginia without Jackson.

"It's my fault," – he heard Lee after the Battle of Gettysburgu. He blamed himself for a loss, and it is not entirely wrong; his decision on the third day of battle inflict large-scale frontal assault on the center of the Union line, known as Pickett – led to terrible casualties, which have paralyzed the Confederate army.

Whether the belief that his orders resulted in heavy casualties – Confederation of the victim, already listed, could hardly afford – forced him to send a letter of resignation to the President of the Confederation Jefferson Davis, whose resignation was rejected.

The official retirement Lee might have given up, but his resignation was apparent; Army of Northern Virginia never attacked the US troops and did not try to seize the northern territory-wide Getysburgskay company. Glorious reputation of the Army of Northern Virginia as the invincible was constantly spotted, and the final victory of the Union was only a matter of time.

De Lage Landen Financial Services

DeLage Landen Financial Services, Inc. (DLL) is currently involved in several lawsuits filed in the courts of Chester County, Pennsylvania. If you are a victim of one of these trials in the case Delage Landen, you should know some things that you need to know in relation to business practices Delage Landen and how they relate to the filed lawsuits.

DLL – is "financing lease", which is based in Wayne, Chester County, Pennsylvania. Normally, when an agreement on financing the lessee the lease, usually a small business or non-profit organization, contact your local dealer to rent a piece of equipment – whether it be an office copy machine or a piece of medical equipment – and the seller then shows the lessee equipment and describes his features. If the tenant decides that they are interested in purchasing the equipment vendor uses a credit score and credit rating of the lessor to receive funding, in which case the DeLage Landen Financial Services. This is not "financing" in the strictest sense of the word, because the DLL is actually buys the equipment and immediately leases it to the lessee. The problem is that often the tenant leases are often not aware that they are dealing not only with the supplier. In fact, it is possible that the DLL will use the suggested name other financial companies, which can be very similar to the name of the provider, and the DLL name does not appear anywhere in the lease documents signed by the lessee. The practice may seem deceptive, it is actually quite common in the area of ​​lease financing.

If a company or non-profit company sues DLL for non-payment, it may be the first time when they know that their contract is with the DLL. Many companies that are being sued in the DLL, not comprised in the state of Pennsylvania, have never done business in Pennsylvania and never put transactions with a legal entity in Pennsylvania. They are surprised to learn that they can before the & # 39; to reveal a lawsuit Chester general supplication, usually because of the "floating keyboard jurisdiction", which usually & # 39 is in the lease. While these rules are regularly supported by the district court judges Chester on common charges, possibly, depending on the rental case was dismissed by the courts of Pennsylvania.

Lawsuits in cases of financial services Delage Landen in the county court of Chester on general requests are usually based on breach of contract, conversion, Replevin – also known as a claim and delivery – a way for an individual or company to return the illegally withheld from their property products, and various other claims. If you are sued DeLage Landen Financial Services, Inc. in Chester County court of common justifications, it is important that you talk to a lawyer who has experience in the protection of these claims. Lease payments are used DeLage Landen Financial Services, Inc., it is usually structured in such a way that they contribute to the DLL; There are still a viable means of protection, including the claim to the supplier, who helped structure the transaction.

If you participate in the trial, which began DeLage Landon Financial Services, Inc., contact a qualified lawyer Chester County to discuss the facts of your case and prepare a defense against claims that you face.

How to find the best price for long-term care insurance in Pennsylvania

Although long-term care insurance is not a necessity in everyone's life, it is vital for many people. With age, people are faced with many different health conditions, resulting in a need for additional, daily care. For people who have long-term care insurance plan, it is important for them to live comfortably, and if necessary help. In Pennsylvania, when a person has used health, may have to wait up to six months before the insurance company will sign a policy to them. This is a good reminder of how important it is to apply early to ensure effective coverage when it is really needed.

In addition to the proper cover the majority of people concerned about the impact of premiums on long-term care in their bank account. By paying a small wealth of insurance that you will never be able to use it like everyone. Therefore, a good idea to try to ensure the lowest quotation policy that covers the basics.

One great way that many couples can find a low rate on long-term health insurance, then buy a joint policy. Policy provides coverage of both parties in the event that one or other or both of the needed long-term care. One of the most important reasons for a couple who have to consider this type of joint policy, is that in some cases, when one spouse dies after the policy has been implemented for several years, remaining a reward for surviving spouses are automatically covered. It can be a godsend for someone who has just lost her husband and does not have the resources needed for further payment of premiums. Anyone who wants to cover with the husband and wife must accurately weigh the benefits of one of these plans.

Ghost Town: The Strange Case of Tsentralii, Pennsylvania

In 1981, in Central Pennsylvania home to more than a thousand souls. By 2010 there lived only ten men. It was – and still is – almost a ghost town.

So, where are all gone?

Well, Centralia is located on top of a network of abandoned coal mines. For reasons not yet fully understood, mines caught fire. Although there is no solid evidence – and other theories have been put forward – most believed that the fire was caused by local authorities, by burning landfill (which was located in an abandoned foundation pit lane), then it could not properly put out. .

Regardless of how the fire started, it was impossible to stop. He made his way into the mine and continued to burn underground during the 1960s and 1970s. All attempts to extinguish it failed. Despite this, most people Tsentralii continued to live, as usual, did not understand thoroughly the scale of what is happening under our feet.

Then, in 1979, it began to change.

The owner of a local gas station Koddingtan John (who at the time was also the mayor of Tsentralii) put the smoke shelf in their underground tanks for fuel in order to measure how much fuel is left. When he pulled out his wand, he was surprised to find that the hot to the touch. So he took the thermometer and lowered it into the tank by means of a piece of string. When he got it, he was shocked to learn that the fuel in the tank was 172 ° Fahrenheit!

Hot Koddyngtana gasoline led to a huge increase in public awareness of the dangers that causes a fire.

It reached its apogee in 1981, when 12-year-old Todi Domboski fell into a shell that suddenly opened beneath his feet, while he was playing in the backyard. The shell has a width of four feet and a length of 150 feet – and output stream of superheated steam, which contained lethal levels of carbon monoxide. Thanks to his cousin, 14-year-old Eric Wolfgang, Todi has been safely removed from the shell.

For most people, however, it was the beginning of the end for Centralia.

In 1984, Congress appropriated $ 42 million for the resettlement of residents. The vast majority accepted the offer to redeem their property and moved – for the most part – to the nearest city, such as Mount Carmel and Ashland. In 1992, the PA has demanded a great possession in all of the & # 39; Tsentralii objects, and then condemned all buildings located there. Ten years later, the US Postal Service has officially withdrawn postcode Centralia (17927).

Today in Tsentralii few remains intact. They have either been torn down or broken nature. Year after year, the visible signs of the old city are becoming more difficult to detect.

Meanwhile, in 50 years, an underground fire flares up – and now covers an area of ​​more than half a square mile.

Despite all this, some residents still continue to resist efforts to sell the property or evict, although their future Tsentralii looks far from assured.

PennDot driver's license

In Pennsylvania, when a person is examined by a doctor and was diagnosed with a disorder or disability, which makes the man "incompetent" to drive a car, he must inform PennDot within 10 days after the test. Common diseases that make a person "incompetent" for driving in Pennsylvania, with & # 39 are: cramps, poor vision and substance abuse or alcohol dependence. If PennDot receives this message from the doctor, they send a message to the driver, which reported that, depending on their status of "withdrawn" driver's license. In simple words, they tell you what they think you are too sick or weak to drive a car – so you are not going to. What to do now?

Once the driver is notified of the recall, they have thirty (30) days to appeal the decision PennDot. There is a problem – the driver can not save the certificate to the treatment, if the driver does not drop and pass a medical examination PennDot (and who wants to do that?) Or not to submit an independent medical evidence, usually from a doctor. at their own option, that can convince the judge of the driver, is not so much danger as will not allow the driver to keep the license until the appeal will not be considered. This in itself may require lawyers rather fancy, a driver, I hope, Save to save the certificate. Who raises the question – "What makes a lawyer to the client in such a case?"

Firstly, the lawyer must ensure that the customer can keep the license for treatment consideration, as stated above. Further, the lawyer should prevent PennDot generally taking it. This question is very often ends in court colleagues in the general courts. This is because at some point the driver will hold a hearing on whether or not this really a medical condition allegedly deprives the customer of safe driving. Here's lawyer advocate medical license requires: cross medically PennDot and to present their own evidence of the customer on its own healthcare professional and convince the judge that Pendot not bear their weight, indicating that the client suffers from a medical condition that makes them "incompetent" to control the car. If a lawyer is a success, he made his money, and the client goes home with his driver's license. Good things.

Lost iron stove

Approaching historical maps, that clutter my desk, I noticed a handwritten reference to man-made monolithic structure, which is supposed to be 10 miles away from what is considered one of the most remote areas of Pennsylvania. Place deprived black top and there's a lot of bear, moose and rattlesnakes. It's hard to imagine that civilization touched the area in which few people have thought today. region of steep mountains and steep ravines further wherein one step means falling to death; but there, in black and white, a mysterious link could be a researcher. It made me wonder: What could it be?

I was not looking for any one city, but the four towns that were built in the immediate vicinity, in the middle of the 19th century became the center of local coal and iron ore industry in the region north central Pennsylvania. This thriving community was built by miners, immigrants and unique personality, life history which left a wealth of legend about buried treasure and English mansion that was sitting out of place on the mountain among Pennsylvania's interior.

Reaveltan is in a very distant ten miles in the remote mountains of north central Pennsylvania. The nearest town, Quigley & # 39; s Mills; itself is a point on a map Lock Haven twenty miles, perhaps the closest, better known to the community. I say that ten miles distant, because in the last ten miles of my journey to this remote region need another 45 minutes; half the time that I need to drive 50 miles from my house. The road that leads to this corner, almost impenetrable, as uneven as any that you would expect to find in the American Southwest. In winter, it is impossible to get to these places. No one comes here, apart from the occasional hunter. The story of Reaveltana left me alone; take pictures of the site and keep a record of where it has not. I like the complexity and the loneliness of the place; one that is untouched.

I arrived in Beechcreek, originally named Quigley & # 39; s Mills, two hundred years ago. It is a small country town with a Mayberry atmosphere. Experience has taught me that the best place to learn the history – in the old inhabitants of the area, so I'm going for a snack to the nooks and crannies. It is just as I expected, the wooden steps to the street, wooden steps leading through the arched Victorian door guesthouse is still standing nearby. Doors creak open, knocking the bell, mounted on top. The old men in overalls and a blue-eyed houses for instant break talk, to look at the two strangers who had just entered. The silence is deafening, minutes delayed, but talks are resumed, we strategically occupy their seats closer to the table with four old people. Black-and-white photographs line the walls of the old city; they will serve as a good icebreaker, when I am gathering the nerve to talk to the gentlemen who are sitting in front of us.

At the moment, my observations on the structure itself, worn wooden floors, tin ceiling, hydrochloric barrel at the end of a dining counter, brass cash register and a floor safe in the corner. Only one middle-aged woman serves as hostess, waitress, cook and cashier; it takes our order and goes to the kitchen. One local resident walks behind the counter, taking a coffee cup and fills patrons … including ours. You can hear shyplyanne sausages, like the smell of home-cooked breakfast cottage soars out of the kitchen, a real rural breakfast.

Casual look throw us; perhaps because we are strangers, perhaps because of my zmyaovyh boots fedory and weapons. I'm waiting for someone from the older gentlemen will make contact with the eyes, it will not take much time, and this is my opportunity to start a conversation. "Pleasant place for you here; Bukkryk". After I introduced us, our conversation turns from a small conversation in the story; configure them easily. I believe that most people are happy to talk about themselves and share what they know about their hometown and about his great uncle Charlie, who lived in the "cholera" and worked at the mine on the mountain. Our conversation allowed me to fill in the gaps in your notes, and people would like to hear what we will find.

The scenic beauty of this part of the country is second to none; deciduous woods which give way to open alkali, peat and beaver dams, and then gorgeous and dark wood, which overlaps almost the entire light; canopy in heavy hemlock diameter of four feet. The destruction of the forest fire that raged on the mountain in the 1890s, is no longer with the & # 39 is obvious, but skepticism drove locals that nothing will be left of the old cities and their frame housing. For a hundred years this has not been seen.

Gore clearly extends down from the top to Buchkryka ​​10 miles. I go to a place where ends black top, and turn on the dirt road that quickly becomes nothing more than ragged, muddy path. Goat track, as I like to call it. I'm going along a narrow path to an increase in height, sometimes with cliffs along one side and sharp stones protruding from the ground with spots of oil, indicating the failure of those who are less prepared. My companion, a new study says these strong distance that one might think that in our part of the country no longer exists. I look forward through the trees, to tell you about the signs of the last housing; The angles of 90 degrees, a line of trees, home vegetation, stone walls; nothing can be seen for miles.

In his pre-planning, I used what is today known as remote sensing Google Earth, which showed me that I must be close to the top of the mountain, where there is an open field. When we cleared the six-foot mud dirt trail, we came to a clearing. I immediately noticed a huge deal to me, an apple tree and a line of conifers that were too evenly spaced to products of nature; Most likely effort the Forest Service after the fire. I surprisingly my interlocutor said, "we are here". His less-skilled eye can not occupy the same places, and he was amazed that even ever been here, I was able to put us in our first attempt to discover the city; others would have passed easily. I pulled out of the trails in the area of ​​the golden rod and stepped out of the truck. To my left in the forest to fifteen feet away it was a stone wall. I went in the opposite direction to spot lilies, unmistakable home-landing, which I knew he would be at home. I could see the road through the hole in the ground, probably wells.

Further, in the partially filled with the foundation of the English mansion of John Revilya. I read that, General, as it was called Revil, divided his time between the construction of the village and the opening of coal mines. It was recorded that he built the good housing for miners and the big house for himself. He was an English-style, large and beautifully finished; central hall with staircase and vitravoy rack mahogany balusters; the rooms are large and deep vtsyapleny fireplaces with large chimneys and carved fireplace mantel. A wide porch adorned the front part, and it was located at an angle, which was sent down the lane, so Reaville could see how close the company. Artful post was located at the head of a walk near the porch. In the yard white picket fence wrapped with Lily and ivy. Spring House was sitting to the right of the lane where the road took place in Reveltan water from wells.

The very atmosphere of the place was a comfort, convenience and luxury; and just as luxurious as you could get in 1853 without internal bathrooms, running water and electricity. He reminds me that today we take a lot for granted. Not surprisingly, this interest in people from other valleys and attracted many visitors. C & # 39 appeared ridiculous in the wilderness. When visited Potters, Ashfield, sylvari and their friends from New York or Boston, the mansion was the site of celebrations and banquets, and in the basement – a purpose-built wine cellar, always equipped with the best English spirits and French wines, was the most popular.

When I switched on the field, apple again rushed into the eyes. Diameter longer than 30 inches, I do not remember to see one more. She grew up right in the middle of the second, a small foundation "L". Old, definitely, I thought that he may have started to rise immediately after a forest fire. When I was going out into the clearing, rabatsiny grouse, washed with a thorny bush with bright orange berries are usually planted as a landscaped, and just beyond it was a large hole in the basement, which consisted of an earthen berm and collapsed the foundation stones. I was sure that he had found the basis of the estate of John Revilya. Over grown and almost completely hidden from view high fern I imagined, like this, perhaps with & # 39 appeared 150 years ago; fence along the road, white columns, black bear, delivered on the front porch; arbitrariness, which the general loved to play among the guests; I was the last one. Rock outcrops have been found out; possible, the location of the cave, where Ivan hung venison; Another foundation across the street from the house. I was sitting on a root, when my companion continued to search for the relics, which would confirm our discovery.

a little respite allowed me to reflect on their environment. Pennsylvania History is full of colorful characters; John Revil not least among them, but to achieve it in the coal and iron industries as secluded as the city that bears his name in the hills above Quigley mills along with three others; Stone Lady, Peacock and Eagleton; Each grew from efforts Reavelton and John Reaville while working in the company Ashfield Coal.

Few written records to find information about these ghost towns. They have become real ghosts; just a footnote in history, only a small notation on the historical map; his name is no longer mentioned to those who live in the area, it simply ceased to exist.

It's an incredible feeling when you discover a new place and know that perhaps the first time in 150 years, someone got carried away and raised the name of the city and its people who have been completely forgotten. Reyviltana story – a story of John Revilya face industrious person, whose legacy has left a history of these cities, which are arranged in terms of our village. Cities – is the story of seven & # 39; ads, and their struggle as pioneers on the border; businesses that are built from the bad, and the other pioneers who later joined the prosperity, creating and building the city on the basis of a brighter future.

Reyviltan unique in that it was founded in 1853 and is almost completely gone in 1878 along with her sisters Rock Cabin, peacocks and Eagleton. This is an example of the theme of industrialization boom and influence that gave rise to the city, their industry and those that put him out of the woods. The study of inheritance and the legend, which has allowed it to be seen and not entirely lost in history as manor and a smaller farm. Community Reyviltana, which is not as old as the sites that we study in classical archeology, old for Pennsylvania, and yet, it is a complicated story to tell about the people who lived there, how they lived and the legacy they left behind themselves.

John Revil emigrated from Nottingham, England, in America, approximately in 1843, settling in New York, and though coal mining profession has gained a greater portion of their savings sixty acre farm near Amagansetta, Long Island, to try his hand at farming. Tired of this undertaking, Revil traveled west through Pennsylvania in the region, where the company "Harry and Ashfield" opening new coal mines. Revil was a tough, hard-working man. He had come to seek his fortune, and fell into the company Potter and Ashfield. They were legal problems with one of the eastern mine, which was as follows: if it is left unattended, the mine may require someone else. John Revil soon went to the county Suika, anthracite coal Pennsylvania, where he had to stay in the mine, where the company "Harry and Ashfield" working illegally and that which the sheriff tried to shut down if they never leave it unattended even for a day . About 8 months Ryvil lived in isolation in the mine, and then Potter and Ashfield owned it because of adverse possession, thus saving costly sum of $ 1,500 000. As a reward for his service, John Revil was named superintendent of mines in the region over the Tangaskootak Bukkrykam in the spring of 1852, where bituminous coal was recently discovered, it was given a blank check and told to open coal mines in the mountains.

Mines were committed before 1854, holes were driven into the hole, and coal is happy. Ten miners, mostly foreigners this kind, many children and their families were living in long rows of houses.

Reyviltan covered about 3,600 hectares. If you include his Sister, this will increase to ten square miles. Reveltan called their city in his name, although initially was Reyvillem. Peacock was named coal color, which was brightly colored brilliance. Rock Cabin gets its name for obvious reasons, as Eagleton called the name of the Bald eagle at the main Indian ruler Seneca. Four cities, hundreds of homes, shops, schools, coal and iron mines, railways, a sawmill and a monolithic structure; a huge iron stove was built just a few years.

It is in the first place Eagleton coal strike in Pennsylvania, and John Revil was the man who did this. Revil, as we know, was a cruel boss. In 1856 the operation was at the peak of the profit, and the men on the & # 39; joined together to demand more money and better treatment. They went on strike, wore guns and threatening to become tough. John Revil sent a trusted employee in Lock Haven to bring back the sheriff John W. Smith, who returned with a group of twenty armed men. Smith calmed things and stopped the strike after about three days.

Reyviltan provide centralized workplace for the early settlers of the region; coal is in great demand, and in the mountain region it was a lot. Reaville labor force consisted mainly of English, Scottish and German immigrants. Additional cities arose in the surrounding areas of natural resources, because it meant a stable job; albeit difficult, and the opportunity to earn a salary and have family & # 39; S. It was opened several drift, and every day the miners climbed into the ground by four pedestrian tunnels to get a black rock, which is looking for the railroad, manufacturing and iron industry. It still needs to be used to heat your home, except for the rich in the cities. The country was rich in wood and cheap, and coal – a commodity.

I walked the earth, representing his features on my cape; first house foundation in the form of "L", the spring house, a well, the mysteries and stables. Then, in the wake of a powder house, mine office, homes of miners and the mines themselves, which are now seen as the destroyed test, where you can stand and look along the ground for the large holes themselves destroyed coal mines. I told his interlocutor, not to go on the ground between the holes of the shell which can give way at any moment.

Many mines were dug up and headed to the north-south direction. I stopped to imagine how men with blackened faces dig under the ground, set the powder charges, clear the mine before the explosion blew up a few tons of coal, and then returned to the shaft, cutting off its roof wooden beams and zashturhovvayuchy coal wagons, which then they have been extracted from the ground by horses up the hill to the narrow-gauge railway cars, where he was sent down the mountain to Lock Haven and loaded onto barges that are waiting in the recently completed canal and Pennsylvania will be shipped to points further east. I wondered danger; shaft movement and seven & # 39; families who have lived here.

child labor laws did not exist at the time; I imagined eight, nine and ten year old boy, who were digging wet from leaking blackened skin that did not come clean and sullen eyes, looking out of the mines; forced labor, where life does not matter, as long as John Ryvil sat in his English mansion, ate oysters and drank fine wine; extremes of life.

I know about Revilya in the corner stone of the foundation that once supported his extravagant home, we found a glass of liqueur glasses of wine and a bottle of bitter, blue and white porcelain, oyster shells and ceramic pipes. Although from the frame is nothing left, it was a two-story affair with an expansive front porch. We see an expensive brick and cut stone, which filled them with earth. There I discovered fragments of pottery, error-free green glass bottle of excellent French and more oyster shells; apparently, he loved them; expensive delicacies from the ocean.

Communicating with the gentlemen at dinner, I learned that in the house, as we know, there is a wine cellar and a cave in the back of the property, where the meat is hung for aging, to create the best taste. Reaville & # 39; s have the best of everything and once entertained the Princess of Spain. While two hundred feet from them miners lived in small 3-4 room houses built on poles, which created a miserable life; die at a young age. Life for these people was hard, but the work was dangerous. Калі мы размаўлялі, я даведаўся, што Джон любіў алкаголь і тытунь. Калі ён прыязджаў у горад, у карчме яго выпівалі, і ён быў удзельнікам жыцця. Гэта было пацверджана колькасцю бурштынавага шкла, адзначаным, як горкія нарыхтоўкі з задняга двара таямніцы, а таксама прыгожыя аскепкі дарагога ганчарнага посуду і іншай шкляной посуду і больш гліняных тытунёвых шынкоў.

Таемныя раскопкі знаходзяцца ўверсе майго спісу, які выкарыстоўваецца для вызначэння ладу жыцця былых жыхароў дома; асабняк Рэйвілтана не адрозніваўся б. Чалавек звычайна ляжыць у тыле дома і ўніз. У гэтым паказана пацверджанне папярэдняга выкопвання, паколькі бруд вакол яго быў натоўп змешаны са зламаным шклом, не пакідаючы нічога ў кантэксце. На шчасце, мы ўжо ведалі ўзрост. Па меры таго, як я прасеяла бруд, стала відавочна, што паляўнічы за бутэлькамі быў там яшчэ пэўны час, пра што сведчыць 1970-я гады, Pepsi можа аднавіцца на глыбіні каля 4 футаў. Тым не менш іх адпусцілі ў пошуках толькі бутэлек, якія засталіся цэлымі пасля 125 гадоў, а мяне цікавіла ўсё астатняе. Шкло было раскідана па зямлі. У хуткім часе пачалі з'яўляцца больш разбітыя керамічныя вырабы і шкло, якія былі груба класіфікаваны па тыпу шкла і колеру альбо ўпрыгажэнні, калі мы вымалі яго з лункі ў зямлі. Некалькі жалезных рэліквій таксама выявіліся. Наша выздараўленне дазволіла нам аднавіць цэлыя кавалкі Кітая; два плыні блакітнага мяса з адпаведнай талеркай для вячэры, страва з белай глазураванай стравай, гаршчок з гаршчкамі, бутэлькі, сметанковы крэм, гліняны гарлач, камерны гаршчок, глобусы з алеем, гліняныя трубы, якія паліў сам Джон. Гэта было сапраўдным бонансам разбітага ганчарства, які забяспечыў бы задавальненне зімой, калі мы прыбіралі, захоўвалі і аднаўлялі жыццёвую і сацыяльную атмасферу, якая існавала ў Рэйвілтане за сто гадоў да таго, як я нават нарадзіўся. Яшчэ так павольна мы ўгаворвалі жыццё назад у Рэвіль. Яны зноў апынуліся ў цэнтры ўвагі; жыццё партыі.

Назад у гарадской прамысловасці пашыралася, жалезная шахта была адкрыта на схіле пагорка, крыху над ручаем Тангакоотак. У лесе была пабудавана печ разам з піларамай, вадой і школай. Я быў перакананы, што маналітная структура, на якую спасылаецца мая карта, павінна быць жалезнай печчу, таму мы пачалі шукаць яе праз лес. Наш след стаў непраходным; 3 футы глыбокіх каляін, напоўненых вадой, прымусілі нас адмовіцца ад аўтамабіля і працягваць пешшу. Мая карта раёна 1872 года акрэсліла паток як "печ". Адно, што я даведаўся, гэта тое, што тапонімы звычайна супадаюць з гісторыяй; таму мы накіраваліся ў гэтым кірунку, праходзячы па пэндзлях і густым падлеску, пакуль не падышлі да добра зношанай сцежкі. Навес балігалову моцна вісеў над галавой, у выніку чаго ў лесе здавалася, быццам бы змярканне. Я не ўяўляў, наколькі далёкая можа быць печ і нават калі яна яшчэ існуе; Часта камяні з канструкцый перастаўляюць у наступныя гады. Мы рушылі пад падстрэшкам масіўных балігаловаў на адлегласць, дзе даліна паглыбілася, і дрэвы амаль не перакрывалі ўсё святло. Я прыгнуўся да стромкага схілу і, стоячы на ​​прорве, з мэтай агляду даліны я паглядзеў уверх, каб убачыць масіўную каменную канструкцыю вышынёй 45 футаў і квадрат на 30 футаў на супрацьлеглым узгорку; як старажытная піраміда, якая стаіць у расколінай даліне, і сонечнае святло цячэ па ёй, нібы пасланае неба. Ілюзія стварыла выдатны досвед, як быццам я адзін быў прызначаны знайсці структуру. Я падказаў суразмоўцу да краю скалы, але ва ўсёй красе ён не мог убачыць печы, бо ляжыць замаскіраваны сярод балігалоў, пазелянеў у колеры. Праз некалькі імгненняў ён зразумеў, у чым маё хваляванне.

Печ стаіць больш за 45 футаў у вышыню і амаль роўная мера ў даўжыню і шырыню прыналежнай каменнай канструкцыі, узятай разам з жалезнымі крыжамі і апорамі з дрэва. Чатыры аркі, па адной з бакоў, вядуць у зоны, дзе расплаўленае жалеза паступае ў формы для зліткаў і полых вырабаў. Праца труб для паветра з сильфона відавочная. Гэта традыцыйная верхняя печ.

Мы скаціліся ўніз па стромкім схіле і, перасекшы паток, былі ашаломлены велізарнай каменнай структурай, калі сонечнае святло прабівалася праз лістоту, ззяючы на ​​печы; відовішча. Некалькі іншых падмуркаў ляжалі раскіданыя па лясах у падтрымку плаўкі.

Жалезная руда добрага якасці існуе ў рэгіёне Тангакоотак і ў 1857 г. вугальная кампанія Тангаскаотак; сапраўдная назва аперацыі ў Рэйвілтане ўзводзіла печ і вырабляла жалеза, але прыпыненне дзеянняў адбылося неўзабаве пасля таго, як гэта адбывалася з здабычай вугалю, але ўсё ж было зроблена дастаткова, каб паказаць той факт, што існавала вялікая колькасць руды, з якой можна было б павінна быць зроблена добрая якасць жалеза. Мне ўдалося знайсці рэшткі запасу коксу, а таксама вапняка, прылеглага да печы, якія выкарыстоўваліся для атрымання дастатковага цяпла, каб выплавіць жалеза. Жалеза плавіцца пры тэмпературы каля 3000 градусаў па Фарэнгейце, таму печ павінна была заставацца ў выбуху 24 гадзіны ў суткі, каб яна не астыла і для аднаўлення тэмпературы спатрэбілася 2-3 тоны коксу. Да сярэдзіны дзевятнаццатага стагоддзя тэндэнцыя была выкарыстоўваць кокс замест драўнянага вугалю, гарачы выбух замест халоднага, пара для электраэнергіі замест вадзяных колаў і сталёвы корпус, агонь з каменю, абкладзеных цэглай.

Гэтая печ дазваляе нам убачыць пераход у тэхналогіі дня. Кокс быў выкарыстаны, аднак вадзяное кола, якое рухаецца механічным мехам, яшчэ не дзейнічала. Часткова выкарыстоўвалася вогнетрывальная камень, але разам з каменным стэкам, абкружаным пяшчанай глінай паміж штабелем і самой каменнай печчу. У раннія гады выбух прыводзіўся ў дзеянне вадой, круцячы колы, якія, у сваю чаргу, альбо працавалі ў мяша (раннія печы), альбо выштурхоўвалі поршні ўнутр і з труб, каб стварыць выбух паветра. Я мяркую, што ў печы Рэйлтана выкарыстоўваліся трубныя поршні з-за доўгага плоскага падмурка, які знаходзіцца справа ад печы. Калі выкарыстанне мяха было спынена каля 1820 г., былі выкарыстаны дзве пары драўляных труб. Кожная пара складалася з адной трубкі ўнутры іншай з прыдатнымі скуранымі пракладкамі. Паколькі ўнутраная трубка адной пары спускалася і ўсмоктвала паветра, унутраная труба другой пары паднімалася і сціскала паветра. Пры дапамозе скураных кранаў рэгуляваўся паток паветра ў акварыум. Спалучэнне паветра, якое паступае ў вугаль коксу, стварала экстрэмальныя тэмпературы, неабходныя для расплаўлення жалезнай руды.

Хоць для аперацый на даменнай печы, напэўна, спатрэбілася пятнаццаць-дваццаць чалавек кругласутачна, іншыя работы, звязаныя з печчу, такія як нарэзка дроў, вывазка коксу і вапняка, збор прадуктаў харчавання для служачых і коней, вываз руды і чыгуну, павялічылася колькасць рабочых да шасцідзесяці да васьмідзесяці.

Цвёрдыя спіртныя напоі карысталіся вялікім попытам у рабочых. Гэта было амаль гэтак жа неабходна, як ежа ці каля гэтага, здаецца. Паколькі большасць печаў пабудавана далёка ад гарадоў, прылеглых да сыравіны і электраэнергіі, магчымасці для адпачынку практычна не было; і ў выніку мужчыны звяртаюцца да ўжывання алкаголю як спосабу бавіць свой вольны час.

Печ пабудавана побач з узгоркам, які мае роўную плошчу на тым жа ўзвышэнні, што і верхняя частка печы. Матэрыялы былі дастаўлены ў гэтую лаву для залівання ў печ. Для гэтага выкарыстоўваўся мост паміж верхняй часткай штабеля і "лаўкай". Мой інстынкт загадаў мне паглядзець пад тым мостам, дзе можна было б знайсці ўзоры паліва, якое выкарыстоўвалася для абпалу печы. Вядома, я знайшоў кокс і вапняк, якія я шукаў. Мой суразмоўца размясціў каровіны звон на суседняй зямлі, хаця я мяркую, што яго ўжывалі на кані альбо муле, які вывозіў сыравіну.

Крыху над печчу размясціліся руіны трох будынкаў; хутчэй за ўсё, двух'ярусныя дамы для работнікаў змены, неабходныя для працы печы кругласутачна. Уніз па сцежцы ў бок крыка Тангаскоотак праверка жалезнай шахты размяшчалася на верхняй частцы пагорка, а яго рухнуты вал ідзе ўніз па схіле. Далей па цячэнні знаходзіліся рэшткі піларамы на вадзе. Плошча засыпана жалезам, дзындрамі і шлакам. У гэтым раёне можна сустрэць круглыя ​​кавалкі жалеза, якія нагадваюць метэарыты.

Па ўсёй даліне, адкуль мы прыйшлі, і на ўзгорку мы адкрылі падмурак Дома жалезных майстроў. Значна большы дом, чым у рабочых, але меншы, чым у генерала Рэвіля. У яго ўваходзілі, хутчэй за ўсё, 6-7 пакояў з пярэднімі і заднімі дзвярыма, шклопакетамі і вясковай хаткай ззаду дома. Жалезны майстар кіраваў печчу і саступаў толькі самому Джону Рывілу. Пакуль мне яшчэ трэба высветліць спецыфіку гэтага чалавека, ён, несумненна, прыехаў з Еўропы з вопытам работы ў печы.

Джон Рэвіль і яго жонка жылі шчасліва і самотна ў сваім асабняку, пакуль ён не памёр ад сардэчнай хваробы, якая праявілася ў падагрычным і вадзяністым стане, дваццаць другога жніўня 1876 года, ва ўзросце сямідзесяці першага года і была пахавана з масонскімі Абрады.

Праз год, менш за сем дзён, ягоная жонка Елісаба, узрост шасцідзесяці сямі з паловай гадоў, памерла ў дзяржаўнай бальніцы ў Данвіле, і пасля смерці мужа ніколі не была жанчынай. Вал з белага мармуру, вышынёй восем з паловай футаў, стаіць каля іх магіл на гарадскіх могілках у Лок-Хейвен.

Пасля іх смерці пачаліся чуткі, што Рэвіль пахаваў мяшкі з грашыма ў сутарэннях свайго асабняка пад бруднай падлогай.

Праз некаторы час у асабняку Рэвіль з'явіўся чалавек. Выказвалася здагадка, што ён супрацоўнік бальніцы, якому місіс Рэвіль раскрыла сакрэт мужа. У суткі ён заставаўся сам-насам, і з яго праганялі цікаўных лесаводаў. Пануры адказ адштурхваўся ад прывітання. Тады гэтага чалавека больш не бачылі. Пазней наведвальнікі выявілі, што падлога склепа выкапана, вінны склеп знесены, а каменныя падмуркі ў многіх месцах зняты. Пра тое, што ў старога генерала было схавана золата, калі ён памёр, ягоная жонка натуральна ведала.

Чыгунка была разарвана, і сотні будынкаў засталіся ў разбурэнні і распадзе. Пазней лясныя пажары паглыналі ўсе іх сляды, і сёння нічога, акрамя некалькіх камянёў падмурка і зялёных насаджэнняў, адзначаюць там, дзе раней стаяла вёска, і нават іх мала.

Закінутая печ, якую пабудаваў Джон Рывіл і дзеля якой непатрэбна спаліў тысячу тон драўнянага вугалю, – гэта адзіная збудаванне сотняў, якія ўзводзяцца сёння ў даліне, якая хутка вяртаецца да сваёй першароднай дзікасці. Мох пакрыты, каменныя сцены на беразе Печы бягуць, падобна на вежу і руіны старога ангельскага замка, які зараз руйнуецца сам.